Welcome to Larisa English Club #4
What’s New? Job’s, Manufacturing, Growth and Profit’s Today.
History Topic. Ford Motor Company in the early 1900‘s
Conversation Topic. Job Interviews and What to do!
Speaking Practice. Job Interview Dialog.
Basic Grammar Review. Conjunctions in English. One of the Eight Essential Parts.
English Grammar. How to use the adverb “How”.
Job’s, Manufacturing, Growth and Profit’s Today
In today’s world of manufacturing, growth and profits are looked at much differently than 100 years ago. Like many things of the past, today is more about competition. Sure, a century ago, all companies worried about profits and making money. In today’s world, it is more about what the other guy is doing. It is all about investment and the future. One wrong step or misinformation can cost a company billions.
For most employees, tomorrow and beyond are part of the unknown world of progress and profits. Here is part of a recent article about Ford Motors. Interesting and all about the world of manufacturing today!
Ford to cut 10% of jobs worldwide
Reported by Keith Naughton
Tuesday 16 May 2017 10:32 BST www.independent.co.uk
Ford shareholders last week criticized company leaders over what one investor called the ‘pathetic’ performance of the vehicle manufacturer’s shares of stock. Ford plans to cut about 10 per cent of staff worldwide as chief executive Mark Fields faces escalating pressure to boost profit and a lagging stock price, the Wall Street Journal reported.
The job cuts are expected to be outlined as early as this week and mostly target salaried employees, the newspaper said, citing unidentified people briefed on the plan. It’s unclear if hourly factory workers are included, the Journal said.
Ford shareholders last week criticized company leaders over what one investor called the “pathetic” performance of the vehicle manufacturer’s shares and questioned how the board can continue to support Mr Fields, who’s been chief executive since July 2014. The board scheduled extra meeting time ahead of last week’s annual meeting to press him on his plans for improving the company’s fortunes, a person familiar with the discussions said.
Fields is facing sharp questioning of his strategy with Ford’s shares having fallen about 36 per cent since he replaced Alan Mulally, who steered the company through the global financial crisis without a government bailout. Fields has been pouring billions into electric cars, self-driving cars and ride-sharing experiments as its conventional vehicle business has struggled more so than crosstown rival General Motors amid a slowing US market. Ford employed about 201,000 workers as of the end of last year, including about 101,000 in North America.
Ford Motor Company in The Early 1900‘s
History of the Ford Motor Company.
In 1908, Henry Ford introduced the Model T. Earlier models were produced at a rate of only a few a day at a rented factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit, Michigan and later at the Piquette Avenue Plant (the first company-owned factory), with groups of two or three men working on each car from components made to order by other companies (what would come to be called an “assembled car”). Employee turnover was a big problem because of long hours and hard work for little money.
In January 1914, Ford solved the employee turnover problem by doubling pay to $5 a day cutting shifts from nine hours to an eight-hour day for a 5-day work week (which also increased sales; a line worker could buy a T with less than four months’ pay), and instituting hiring practices that identified the best workers, including disabled people considered unemployable by other firms. Employee turnover plunged, productivity soared, and with it, the cost per vehicle plummeted. Ford cut prices again and again and invented the system of franchised dealers who were loyal to his brand name. Wall Street had criticized Ford’s generous labor practices when he began paying workers enough to buy the products they made.
By the end of 1919, Ford was producing 50 percent of all cars in the United States, and 40% of all British ones; by 1920, half of all cars in the U.S. were Model Ts. (The low price also killed the cyclecar in the U.S.) The assembly line transformed the industry; soon, companies without it risked bankruptcy. Of 200 U.S. car makers in 1920, only 17 were left in 1940. This was due to poor planning and the high cost of production.
Job Interviews and What to do!
A face to face job interview is often the second or third stage. Searching for and applying for a new job opportunity are often the first and second stages. If you are lucky enough to sit with an HR director or manager, your chances of getting the job are very good.
Unfortunately, this is where most applicants fail. They forget that the face to face interview is actually the most important stage. This is where the company just wants to get to know you. Your job history and education are already known. It is also possible you have been recommended by someone. That is usually a good thing too.
Remember to keep your conversation to a minimum. Answer the questions presented in simple and confident terms. Try not to ramble on and on. Only ask questions when asked. Remember that fluent speakers of English speak in simple terms. In other words, just answer the question with short answers. Keep your English simple.
Job Interview Dialog
Here are a few examples and how to speak with simple dialog. For this dialog, I will use the name “Sergey”. Practice the dialog by listening to the audio and answer as you would in an interview.
The chocolate answer always makes someone smile. Making a personal connection in your interview is critical. If done right, you will have the job you have always wanted.
Just remember to keep your English simple and do not try to over explain. Make a great connection and anything is possible.
Basic Grammar Review
Conjunctions in English. One of the Eight Essential Parts.
What is a conjunction? A conjunction joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Conjunctions, may or may not stand between words they conjoin.
There are several types of English conjunctions. Like all parts of English, words function in many different ways. The main idea is to think of words in the way they are used. Although we often think of words in English in a certain way, all English words have multiple uses. It is about the usage and the job a word performs.
Conjunctions are no different. There are just a few common conjunctions in the English language. English conjunctions are used to help give explanations, ideas, exceptions, contrasts and consequences. Generally, each conjunction has a specific usage. Just remember that words are just words until we give a certain job to them.
Conjunctions used in English are; And, as, because, but, for, just as, or, neither, nor, not only, so, whether and yet. With the many different jobs conjunctions perform, sometimes, learning conjunctions can be challenging. There are four different types of conjunctions. First, let’s start with Subordinating Conjunctions. These words are also known as Subordinators. They join dependent clauses to independent clauses.
What is a clause? A clause is a part of a sentence. There are two types of clauses; Independent and subordinating. An independent clause is a full sentence. In other words, It has a verb and a subject and expresses a complete thought. A subordinating clause is part of a sentence. It does not express a complete thought. It needs further explanation and needs the rest of the sentence to express context and meaning. This is why we sometimes need English conjunctions to explain what we are trying to convey.
Coordinating conjunctions are second. What are coordinating conjunctions? First, they are also known as coordinators. These types of conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech that share the same importance. Correlative English conjunctions work together in pairs with phrases or just words that have equal importance in a sentence.
I talk a lot about the many different uses of adverbs. It is often a weak area with most students of a second language. Most students fail to fully understand the use of adverbs. Conjunctive adverbs are important because they are used to connect one clause with another, help show sequence, contrast, cause and effect as well as other relationships.
How to use the adverb “How”
Like most words in English, adverbs are essential. The adverb “How” is used many different ways. Questions, phrasal verbs and more. In this article, I will offer a few ways to use “How” along with some examples with adverbs.
One of the fun parts of English is that words can be used so many different ways. The word “How” is no exception. In general, the word “How” is used to form questions. In every day usage, it is used in positive and negative statements as well. “How” can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
As an adverb, “How” can be used to refer to time, frequency and distance. Indirect questions provide other ways to use the word “How”. Exclamations contain many variants with the word “How”. In this article, I will cover these uses with examples and more detail. Adverbs are an essential part of the English language.
Meeting and greetings are common with the word “How”. “How are you?”. An answer might be “I am fine, how about you?”. This question can be used with the verb “Do” as well. “How do you do?”.
There is an important distinction between these two statements. “How are you?” can be used EVERY TIME we meet someone again and again. “How do you do” is used just for the first time we meet or are introduced to someone, NOT again and again.
A common misuse of “How do you do” and “How are you doing?” is not understanding the difference between them. “How are you doing?” implies a temporary condition. In other words “How are you doing these days” might be more useful if something has changed.
However, in an informal manner, just about anything goes. Examples might be “Hey! How are you?” or “Hey! How you doin’?” The last example would be considered slang or informal English.
“How” can be used to ask questions with uncountable and countable nouns. With the verb “Be”, “How much is there?” or with the verb “Do” “How much do we have?”. Countable with the verb “To be” might be “How many are there?” or with the verb “Do”, “How many do we have?”.
Answers using the verb “To be” might be “There isn’t much” or “There is SO much”. Answers with the verb “Do” might be “We don’t have much” or “We do have a lot”. “How” can refer to time and distance. An example might be “How much time will it take to finish the job?” or “How long will it take us to get there?”. For distance, we might say “How far is our destination?” or “How many miles is it to our destination?”
The word used for frequency might be something like “How often do you visit your family?” or “How frequently do you go to the movies?”. Indirect questions with “How” are also common in English. Here is just one example “I wonder how she read that book so quickly?”. An exclamation might be “How in the world?” or “How in the heck?”. These are informal ways to use the word “How” as interjections.
As you can see, the word “How” is used many ways in the English language. Even North American Indians used it to say “Hello”. One simple word can be used so many different ways. Study English every day and learn new vocabulary along with it’s usage. Practice spoken English as often as possible and you will be speaking fluently in no time.
Until next time…
Thanks for listening. I hope you enjoyed this edition of Larisa English Club. Remember that life is an adventure. Never be afraid to be you!