In the wake of President Trump’s decision to remove America from the Paris Climate agreement, you’d be forgiven for feeling a little negative about the future of the planet.
With reports of huge cracks appearing in the Antarctic ice, fears that preventing the two degree heating of the planet might be a pipe dream, and the world’s food supplies at risk – everything looks and sounds grim.
Fortunately though, there are some good news stories on the horizon; with many of them coming from China. The country has been leading the way when it comes to ‘green living’ in recent years, with the government announcing it had completed construction of the world’s largest floating solar farm. Now, in an attempt to curb the production of toxic gasses, the country is continuing to pave the way (so to speak) with the construction of one of the world’s first ‘forest cities’. Designed by Stefano Boeri, who you might remember also designed two vertical skyscraper ‘forests’, the city is currently under construction in Liuzhou, Guangxi Province.
Once completed, the new city will reportedly host 30,000 people and – thanks to the abundance of trees and plants – will absorb almost 10,000 tons of CO2, 57 tons of pollutants per year and produce approximately 900 tons of oxygen annually. The city will achieve these rather impressive figures thanks to roughly a million plants from over 100 species, as well as 40,000 trees being planted in facades over almost every surface imaginable. The new Liuzhou Forest City will connect to the existing Liuzhou via a series of fast rail services and electric cars. It will also reportedly house a number of schools and two hospitals. There are also plans to make the city self-sustainable with regards to power, thanks to geothermal and solar energy resources.
Judith: This is the last of the milk. Mother: I know. I intend to go to the store today. Judith: Would you get some of that new cereal we saw advertised on TV? Mother: Which one? Judith: You know the one with the silly ad about how vitamins jump up and down. Mother: Oh, you mean “KIKIES”? Judith: Yeah. That’s the one. Mother: Well, I’ll see. Sometimes the stores don’t have some of the new kinds of cereal. Language Notes: Last of the milk = exhausts the supply of milk Silly = foolish Ad = advertisement Yeah = (Informal) Yes I’ll see = I’ll examine the possibility.
Present Perfect + For / Since
The present perfect is also used with for and sinceto talk about actions that began in the past and continue to the present:
“I’ve lived here since 2004.” “I’ve lived here for 8 years.”
“Since” is used with a point in time, and means “from that point in time until the present.”
Use “Since” with dates (2011, January, Tuesday, etc.), times (6:15, noon, this morning, etc.), and past events (I was a child, he graduated from college, etc).
“Since” as an “adverb” is always used with the present perfect, and not the simple past when we refer to time.
“Since” as a conjunction can be used for other statements. Conjunctions are used to connect other words. “Since” is used to introduce subordinate clauses.
“I’ve gone to the beach every year since I was a child.” (repeated action that continues until today).
“I went to the beach when I was a child.” (finished action at a specific time in the past; I don’t go to the beach nowadays).
“For” is used with a time period, and means “for that period of time until the present.” Use “for” with times of any length (five seconds, eight hours, two days, six weeks, nine months, ten years, a decade, centuries, etc.)
Be careful with “for”, because using the present perfect or the simple past can change the meaning:
“We’ve lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we live in Berlin now) “We lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we don’t live in Berlin now)
Until next time…
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