What’s in The News? Unusual Coral Reefs Discovered in The Pacific Ocean.
Speaking Practice. At the Bank.
English Grammar. Prepositions of Time: after/later/on/in/at
What’s in The News?
Unusual Coral Reefs Discovered in The Pacific Ocean.
Scientists had long believed that the waters of the Central and Northeast Pacific Ocean were inhospitable to certain species of deep-sea corals, but a marine biologist’s discovery of an odd chain of reefs suggests there are mysteries about the development and durability of coral colonies yet to be uncovered.
Scientist Amy Taylor of Florida State University (FSU), in collaboration with researchers from Texas A&M University, found the reefs during an autonomous underwater vehicle survey of the sea-mountains of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
“I’ve been exploring the deep sea around the Hawaiian Islands since 1998, and have seen enough to know that the presence of the reefs at these depths was definitely unexpected,” Amy Taylor said.
Some ocean areas, such as the North Atlantic and South Pacific, are particularly fertile habitats for deep-sea reefs, but a combination of factors led scientists to believe that finding these coral colonies was exceedingly unlikely in the deep waters of the North Pacific.
The researchers suggest potential reasons for the improbable success of these hardy reefs. Among them, higher concentrations of chlorophyll in the areas of reef growth suggest that an abundance of food may provide the excess energy needed for calcification.
Nancy: Actually, I want to buy some traveler’s checks.
Teller: What denomination?
Nancy: Twenties would be fine.
Teller: Do you want the whole amount in traveler’s checks?
Nancy: Yes, please.
to cash this check = to receive money for this check
account = money in the bank belonging to a person
yeah = informal for the word “Yes”
large or small bills = bills of large or small denomination
traveler’s checks = special checks issued by banks
denomination = bill’s from 1 to 100 dollars
twenties = a twenty dollar bill
Prepositions of Time: after/later/on/in/at
While there are reasons why we do what we do in English, often there is no reason at all. Common phrases or expressions are created by people. Most from the past. Phrases or time expressions are often referred to as “Colloquial Speech or Collocations”. Is there “always” a reason for what we say in English? Short answer: NO! The main idea is to learn time expressions by heart. Study, Practice and Speak English with common phrases to speak and understand others. Here are brief explanations and examples. Have fun!
Use after + phrase, and use later alone (at the end of a sentence or phrase).
I’ll call you later.
I’ll call you after I get home from work.
First he bought a new car. Two weeks later, he bought a new motorcycle.
He bought a new motorcycle two weeks after he bought a car.
You can say “later + time period” to refer to an unspecified time in the future, for example:
I’ll finish the project later this week.
We’ll go on vacation later this year.
Sometimes rules do not apply to everyday English. This is very true with prepositions and time expressions. To learn time expressions, you must study and memorize what you have learned. The general rules for on, in, at are as follows. “On” is often used when two things touch. “In” is often used with limits. “At” is often used to refer to places or locations. Review the following examples until you memorize them. Have fun!
Use “in” for centuries, decades, years, seasons, and months:
In the 18th century
In the 1960‘s
In the summer
Use “on” for days:
On March 15th.
On my birthday
On the weekend
Use “at” for times:
At quarter past four.
Until next time…
Study English daily. Take a few minutes or more everyday to accomplish your language learning goals. Study with friends and colleagues. Watch your English improve everyday.